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The roles of contextual and institutional factors of migration

This briefing presents the main findings through four (4) research questions (RQ) of the comparative analysis of the contextual and institutional factors of migration as revealed by the qualitative interviews with migrants conducted within the framework of WP4 ‘The lived experiences of migration’ of the Growth, Equal Opportunities, Migration and Markets (GEMM) Project. This briefing deals with the challenges that migrants face in their early adaptation in the destination countries (RQ1) and the professional and career trajectories of migrants (RQ2).

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Contextual and institutional factors of migration. Social ties and belonging

This briefing presents the main findings through the second two research questions (RQ) of the comparative analysis of the contextual and institutional factors of migration as revealed by the qualitative interviews with migrants conducted within the framework of WP4 ‘The lived experiences of migration’ of the Growth, Equal Opportunities, Migration and Markets (GEMM) Project. This briefing deals with the challenges that migrants face in their early adaptation in the destination countries (RQ1) and the professional and career trajectories of migrants (RQ2).

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Individual factors for migration and migration channels

In this report we present results from the comparative analysis conducted within the framework of WP4 ‘The lived experiences of migration’ of the GEMM Project (D4.3). The Growth, Equal Opportunities, Migration and Markets (GEMM) project as a whole examines the challenges and barriers that European countries face in managing the mobility of European citizens to achieve competitiveness and growth. This goal has been addressed in different ways throughout the inquiry. The objectives of WP4 have been set to collect qualitative information for an in-depth study of the lived experiences of mobility as embedded in specific social contexts, to investigate the dynamic process of mobility and highlight the factors for the successful integration of migrants and efficient use of human capital in Europe. This is the first comparative report on the individual factors for migration and migration channels. A second report will follow shortly which will consider the institutional and contextual factors affecting mobility.

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Report on institutional and contextual factors

The gradual decline of the assimilation theories in the studies on migration shifts the scholarly attention to the complexity of the migration process as one which is neither irreversible nor bent on following unilinear phases. One aspect remains however crucial: the significance of the settlement patterns. In the assimilation theories, it is linked to the initial ‘social disequilibrium’ generated by the clash of conflicting cultural values and norms upon the migration move; and it is this tension whose resolution depends on the cultural and social absorption into the mainstream. In the light of trends taking place as early as in the 1970s and 1980s, that same clash is no longer necessarily related to absorption but rather to factors such as conditions of exit, class origins and contexts of reception (Portes and Böröcz 1989).

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The role of recruiting agencies in labour mobility – the case of Bulgaria

This briefing presents initial results from the analysis of the qualitative data gathered in Bulgaria during the fieldwork in the first half of 2017. It focuses on the recruiting practices of public and private agencies dealing with international labour mediation. We use 12 expert interviews conducted in Bulgaria as a country traditionally sending workers abroad but having less than 10 years of institutional participation in EU mobility networks. We interviewed experts on different levels of the organizational hierarchy, as well as owners of private agencies. Most were women in mid and late career stages.

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Lived experiences of Bulgarian migrants in Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK

This briefing presents selected relevant findings from the qualitative research carried out by the Bulgarian team under the WP4 of the Growth, Equal Opportunities, Migration and Markets (GEMM) Project. One should bear in mind that our sample targeted only migrants active on the labour market (mostly employed but also temporary unemployed) and only in some activity domains (ICT, medicine and finance for the highly skilled; construction, transport and care work for the low skilled), so the findings from our analysis may differ from official statistics and/or the findings of other researches.

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Cross-country findings of the individual factors for migration

This briefing presents selected findings from the comparative report on the individual factors for migration under WP4 of the Growth, Equal Opportunities, Migration and Markets (GEMM) Project. It draws upon qualitative interviews with two types of migrants: ‘actual’, people who are already living in a foreign country and ‘potential’, people who plan to migrate in the near future. A third group of interviewees comprises of experts working in private and public recruitment agencies. The whole sample consists of 154 interviews conducted with Bulgarian, Romanian, Italian and Spanish migrants and experts in the UK, Germany, Italy and Spain. We first present the main aspects of the comparative analysis and then focus on some of the most interesting findings.

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Deliverable 4.6 Data set qualitative fieldwork

The data collection consists of the full transcripts of the 236 in-depth interviews conducted in Bulgaria, Romania, Italy, Spain, Germany and the UK in the respective national languages. Of these 154 were conducted with ‘actual migrants’ – people who had migrated from four sending countries Bulgaria, Romania, Italy, and Spain and who lived in four receiving EU countries: UK, Germany, Spain and Italy. In the group of actual migrants there are 16 interviews conducted with non-EU migrants from China and the USA in Germany and the UK. Additionally, 42 ‘prospective’ migrants were interviewed at home in Bulgaria, Romania, Italy, and Spain about their plans to migrate in less than 12 months to an EU country. Further, the collection contains 40 interviews with experts from public and private recruiting agencies. Besides the full transcripts in six languages, three-page summaries of all interviews in English are included in the collection.

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Overview of contextual and institutional factors for migration

This is the second overview of country-specific literature on the theme of migration in the EU covering the six countries taking part in GEMM Workpackage 4 ‘The lived experiences of migration’: UK, Germany, Italy, Spain, Bulgaria and Romania. The first literature review focused on the individual factors for migration such as gender, ethnicity and age, as well as the formal and informal channels for mobility from the countries of departure to the countries of destination. The second overview concentrates on the institutional and contextual factors facilitating or preventing mobility in the European labour market. The objective is to examine previous research findings about the structures of opportunities and constraints for the successful labour market integration of migrants, common in the research literature from the different countries, and to outline the discrepancies, uncertainties and gaps among different studies. It will serve as a background for writing the subsequent country reports which will be based on the analysis of the rich qualitative data collected in the fieldwork of the GEMM Workpackage 4 study.

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Overview of recruitment methods and individual factors for migration

The paper used three datasets for this description: the European Social Survey (ESS) 2002-2014; the Database on Immigrants in OECD Countries (DIOC) 2005/06 – 2011/12; and the EU Labour Force Survey (LFS) 2005-2014. The DIOC is a combination of census and detailed labour force survey data and provides the most complete picture based on a large sample and with detailed country of origin. It is only available for the year 2005/06 and 2010/11 however. To provide as up-to-date as possible information I make use of the latest wave (2010/11) for the descriptive tables. The ESS provides information on detailed country of birth and most indicators I use here, but it is based on small samples per country. Italy is only present in 2002, 2004 and 2012. The EU LFS has a very large sample as well as detailed information on all indicators, but to maintain confidentiality of the sample the country of birth is aggregated. We can therefore only distinguish between migrants from the 3 latest EU member states (Romania, Bulgaria and Croatia) and those from the EU-15 (including Italy and Spain). Finland and Sweden do not report on the three newest member states but instead group all non-EU15 member states together in the New Member States category. All data is weighted to be representative of the population. The do-file to create the tables is create_tables_WP4_new.do and the datasets are created using tables_WP4_data. The tables are generally weighted to be representative of the population. Some of the tables also provide statistical tests of the difference in an outcome between migrants and natives and its’ significance. This is estimated from a simple binary regression.

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